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200-125 CCNA v3.0 | Day 3 (AM): IP Address V4 | Free Cisco Video Training 2016 | NetworKing
1 00:00:01,197 --> 00:00:09,547 cisco certified network associate day 3 welcome back iam imran rafai your trainer for entire series 2 00:00:09,547 --> 00:00:14,77 as you know this is a free train series provided on YouTube 3 00:00:14,77 --> 00:00:20,577 and if you think this video is helped you or if you think it could help colleague of yours 4 00:00:20,577 --> 00:00:27,118 please do not hesitate to share this video on your social media platforms and of cource like this video 5 00:00:27,118 --> 00:00:37,448 more you like more you promote this video and it could lot of people in our last video which is ccna day 2 6 00:00:37,448 --> 00:00:47,840 we looked at the osi reference model and tc ip model.in todays video as you can see on the screen we would be dealing 7 00:00:47,840 --> 00:00:55,310 with ip version 4.ip adress and subnetting go hand in hand and hence what have done is break day 3 8 00:00:55,310 --> 00:01:04,511 into two parts.so i call this video day3(am) and we will deal exclusive about ip adress and structures 9 00:01:04,511 --> 00:01:13,981 and we will create an another video called day 3(pm) and we include subnetting into that video. 10 00:01:13,981 --> 00:01:22,751 allright without wasting much time let us get straight into this when we hear about IP address 11 00:01:22,751 --> 00:01:30,571 and especially those people who do not understand IP address we get scared and we wonder what these 12 00:01:30,571 --> 00:01:38,802 numbers really mean and we most of time really get worried because we don't understand the IP adresses 13 00:01:38,802 --> 00:01:46,792 well trust me when I say this IP address very very easy concept to learn and once you finish this video 14 00:01:46,792 --> 00:01:54,642 you would be wondering what was it so difficult that you have to be really really tense whenever you heard 15 00:01:54,642 --> 00:02:03,292 about IP addresses and this what you see in the screen is nothing but an IP version 4 address and as 16 00:02:03,292 --> 00:02:13,303 you know IP version 6 has been released and if you get scared looking at IP version 4 address I 17 00:02:13,303 --> 00:02:25,13 would ask you to wait until you see IP version 6 an example of which is this dontworry dontworry IP 18 00:02:25,13 --> 00:02:34,963 address is not that difficult once we understand the basics IP addressing is very very very easy just 19 00:02:34,963 --> 00:02:43,904 because IP version 6 is comming do not neglect IP version 4 because I think personally IP version 4 is 20 00:02:43,904 --> 00:02:53,604 going to be around for a very long time and like you know IP version 6 is included in the new syllabus 21 00:02:53,604 --> 00:03:01,434 of CCNA so we would be dealing with IP version 6 but in the later video for now we would be dealing with 22 00:03:01,434 --> 00:03:11,795 only IP version 4 IP as you know is nothing but Internet protocol and IP version 4 is the fourth version of 23 00:03:11,795 --> 00:03:19,855 the protocol and the IP version 6 obviously is the sixth version and the latest version in the Internet 24 00:03:19,855 --> 00:03:30,935 protocol IP is a connectionless protocol so IP let you know from the last video IP operates at layer 3 25 00:03:30,935 --> 00:03:40,16 so the connection connection layers and known the data sequencing and all these things happen on 26 00:03:40,16 --> 00:03:49,78 a layer 4 protocol called TCP which we learned in the last video. right let's let's go down and look at IP 27 00:03:49,78 --> 00:03:59,498 four in detail the most of us have seen this screen of Windows user's would have seen screen that's on your left and the 28 00:03:59,498 --> 00:04:06,699 Mac User would have seen the screen that's on your right this is where you do all your IP address configurations 29 00:04:06,699 --> 00:04:12,279 and most of us just copied whatever addresses and subnetmask and default gateways is given 30 00:04:12,279 --> 00:04:20,999 to us by an administrator or a colleague and really did know what those numbers really meant this video 31 00:04:20,999 --> 00:04:32,549 today will explain what an IP addresses is and how they work an IP address is typically a number separated by 32 00:04:32,549 --> 00:04:41,140 dots and when we talk about IP addresses three information that go hand-in-hand our IP address subnet mask and 33 00:04:41,140 --> 00:04:51,200 gateway like you saw on the previous screen the gateway is sometimes also called as a router an IP address consists 34 00:04:51,200 --> 00:05:02,780 of four octet now you might ask what is an octate.an octate is nothing but a group of eight so you might ask what group of 35 00:05:02,780 --> 00:05:13,533 eight to understand that we need to understand what an IP address really is to a computer and to all the next devices and 36 00:05:13,533 --> 00:05:25,674 IP address is seen like this .this is nothing but binary representation of the IP address but since humans like you and 37 00:05:25,674 --> 00:05:36,344 I do not have the capacity to remember a number like this it is made easy for us by converting these binary numbers 38 00:05:36,344 --> 00:05:45,64 to a decimal form like this so this form of representation of the IP address is called as the doted decimal presentation 39 00:05:45,64 --> 00:05:57,885 so it is nothing but the binary octets here on the screen are converted to the respected decimal number so you might ask 40 00:05:57,885 --> 00:06:06,645 how do they do that well it's very easy there are different ways of conversion converting binary numbers to decimal numbers 41 00:06:06,645 --> 00:06:18,755 but easiest way is to have table like you see on the top of your screens it's a it's a eight column table starting from 1 42 00:06:18,755 --> 00:06:31,156 from the right goes to 2 it keep doubling it 4 8 16 32 64 and 128 now take one of these octet so let's assume we take the 43 00:06:31,156 --> 00:06:44,686 first octet which is nothing but 11000000 and put it here if you put 1 bit at the time and you put all those bits here you 44 00:06:44,686 --> 00:06:54,205 would get something like this now where ever there is a one take the number about that and add so in this case you just add 45 00:06:54,205 --> 00:07:15,745 128 and 64 so 128+64 is 192 so we could replace this 11000000 to 192 which is nothing but decimal representation 46 00:07:15,745 --> 00:07:29,66 of that number and it's a much easier number for us to remember. similarly we could convert the next octet that is 10101000 which is nothing 47 00:07:29,66 --> 00:07:47,317 but if you add 128+32+8 so 128+32+8 is nothing but 168 and we can repressent this octate as 168 similarly if you follow the same procedure 48 00:07:47,317 --> 00:07:57,67 you could convert all these numbers to the decimal equivalent so an IP address is four octates 49 00:07:57,67 --> 00:08:12,277 long so as we already saw you have four octates separated by a dot IP address is also a 32-bit number so as we saw you have 32-bits in every 50 00:08:12,277 --> 00:08:28,168 IP address with every octot as eight so 12345678 8-bits into four so it's 32-bit address alright next it says IP address can take numbers 51 00:08:28,168 --> 00:08:42,318 from 0 to 255 so you might ask 255 is that number come well if you look at the table again if all the bits in the octates 52 00:08:42,318 --> 00:08:57,329 are zero the decimal number is a zero if all the bits octet are once the decimal number is 255 so each of these octets can take values 53 00:08:57,329 --> 00:09:12,2 from zero or the maximum 255 if you see a number in the IP address which is more than 255 that's an invalid IP address next we deal with 54 00:09:12,2 --> 00:09:28,903 the host and network concept every IP address has two information it has a network field and it has a host field.how do you identify which part 55 00:09:28,903 --> 00:09:38,83 of the IP address is a network part and which part is the host part when we do that with the help of subnetmask so we see on the screen the 56 00:09:38,83 --> 00:09:51,704 subnet mask will always be a series of one followed by a series of zeros .so if you look at the subnetmask the transition from ones to 57 00:09:51,704 --> 00:10:04,564 zeros happen at the place which separates the network part and the host part in this example 192.168.100 is the network 58 00:10:04,564 --> 00:10:22,174 bit let me just take another color all right so so in this case this is the network part and this is the hostpart so in this case IP addresses 59 00:10:22,174 --> 00:10:39,155 from 192.168.100.0 to 100.255 is one big network to understand this let's assume that I'm in New York today and the I'm staying at the 60 00:10:39,155 --> 00:10:48,346 Hilton so I called a friend of mine who is also in New York that day and I tell them to come and see me so I i Phone and I tell him that 61 00:10:48,346 --> 00:11:01,346 Im at the Hilton in room number 2002014 since 2014 and he's also new to New York I tell them that the Hilton is on the sixth 62 00:11:01,346 --> 00:11:16,436 Avenue between Street 53 and 54 now if you compare it to an IP address the address of the hotel is the network path and the room number is the 63 00:11:16,436 --> 00:11:22,687 host part now when I when I told him that he is he tells 64 00:11:22,687 --> 00:11:35,217 me that there is a very very nice restaurants near his hotel and I must instead go to downtown where he is staying .he is staying at the Marriott downtown and 65 00:11:35,217 --> 00:11:44,349 this beautiful restaurant called the liberty cross the street and he said let's go for lunch that now when he tells me that I need 66 00:11:44,349 --> 00:11:53,469 to go to Marriott one thing I know that marriottt is not in Hilton so I know that for me to reach Marriott I need to exit through my main 67 00:11:53,469 --> 00:12:09,128 gate so similarly if an IP address is not part of the same network you can know that by comparing the network bit it's a different 68 00:12:09,128 --> 00:12:20,219 network bit it is like it's a different hotel so like in the hotel's analogy for me to exit the hotel and go to a different hotel I need 69 00:12:20,219 --> 00:12:30,689 to exit through the main gate similarly if an IP address has to communicate with onother network IP address it has to go through the 70 00:12:30,689 --> 00:12:41,109 gate way in this case the gateway is 192.168.100.1 always remember the IP address and the gateway needs to be in the same 71 00:12:41,109 --> 00:13:00,360 network if this change then the network is not valid next is the Classes so to look at that we look at this light IP addresses have different 72 00:13:00,360 --> 00:13:13,750 classes the class of an IP address is decided by the first octet so let's assume the first octet of the IP address is between 1 73 00:13:13,750 --> 00:13:29,81 and 126 in that case it is a clause A IP address if the first octet is between 128 to 191 it is clause B IP address. if the first octet is between 74 00:13:29,81 --> 00:13:44,141 192 to 223 it is clause C and between 224 to 239 in is class D.240 to 255 it is class e.for all practical purposes and for the scope of 75 00:13:44,141 --> 00:13:59,362 CCNA we would be only dealing with class A B and C class D is used for multi-cost and class E is reserved for experimental purposes 76 00:13:59,362 --> 00:14:15,955 if you see we skipped one number between classA and class B that's 127 so any IP address starting with 127 is a loopback 77 00:14:15,955 --> 00:14:29,486 IP address so 127 is used for loop back right let's look at class C IP address if you remember from the previous slide the class of an 78 00:14:29,486 --> 00:14:42,126 IP address is decided by the first octet in this case 192 if you look at the stable 192 is class C so this is a 79 00:14:42,126 --> 00:14:57,177 class C Ip adress we spoke about this subnet mask deciding between network and hosts but I'm sure you must have ask how do we know what subnet 80 00:14:57,177 --> 00:15:12,297 mask is with some mask is decided by the class so for class C IP address the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0 so if you represent the submnet 81 00:15:12,297 --> 00:15:28,588 mask in binary form it would be this and like we already know this separation separates the network and the host bit so in this case 192 168.100 82 00:15:28,588 --> 00:15:44,258 is the network part and 225 is the host part an another way of representing this IP address is by putting a / .when i say 192.168.100.225/24 it means 83 00:15:44,258 --> 00:16:05,819 that the submit mask has 24 ones so 24 ones is nothing but clause C IP address also when the host is zero that is the first IP address in the network 84 00:16:05,819 --> 00:16:20,659 it is called the network ID and if the Hostbit goes to all once that is 255 it becomes the broadcast IDs in this case 192.168.100.0 is 85 00:16:20,659 --> 00:16:34,720 the network ID and 192.168.100.255 which is the last IP in this network is the broadcast IDs are valid IP addresses and was network are from 1 to 254 86 00:16:34,720 --> 00:16:49,164 so to know how many are valid IP addresses are there in this network we use the formula 2 to the power number off host bits and this case number of 87 00:16:49,164 --> 00:17:04,75 host bits are the number of zeros in this case it is 2 to the power 8-2 is nothing but 254 host or valid rooms in the case of the hotel and if you take the 88 00:17:04,75 --> 00:17:20,35 hotel analogy it is like a hotel with 254 rooms so this is room number 225 so there was another room calles 26 we can communicate with each 89 00:17:20,35 --> 00:17:32,386 other because they are part of the same building also remember like we discussed earlier the gateway has to be part of the same network or same hotel in our hotel 90 00:17:32,386 --> 00:17:53,306 analogy so if gateways 192.168.99.1 or 102.1 this will not work the IP address and the gateway should have the same network alright now lets look at class B 91 00:17:53,306 --> 00:18:06,577 class B again if you look at the first octet of IP address it's 172 and from the table we know 172 is a clause B IP address so class 92 00:18:06,577 --> 00:18:23,917 B IP address will have a submit mask 255.255.0.0 if you remember from class C class C had three 255's but class b has two 255 so we convert the submit mask into 93 00:18:23,917 --> 00:18:43,658 the binary form this is how it looks like we discussed earlier this is represented as/16 because it has 16 once and the againe like we already know the 94 00:18:43,658 --> 00:18:57,418 separation happens here so 172.123 is the network bit and 100.225 is the host bit. so the network ID is nothing but making 95 00:18:57,418 --> 00:19:13,625 the host ID zero so 126.96.36.199 is the network ID and the broadcast ID is by making the host bits all once so brodcast ID is nothing but 96 00:19:13,625 --> 00:19:34,905 188.8.131.52 valid IP's are between 184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11 how do we know how many IP addresses are their thats valid we use the same formula 97 00:19:34,905 --> 00:19:58,16 so number of host bits are 16 so 2to the power of 16-2 is 65,534 that's a very very big number so if you go with the hotel analogy we see that to have 65,534 rooms 98 00:19:58,16 --> 00:20:11,562 it is going to be very difficult to manage and that is exactly why we have a concept called submitting which is nothing but taking a massive network and breaking 99 00:20:11,562 --> 00:20:20,122 it into small manageable forms Cisco sayss the ideal number of host or network should not be more than 500 because they say anything more than 500 100 00:20:20,122 --> 00:20:32,733 the broadcast traffic is going to be so massive that the network is going to be very very inefficient so that's why we use submitting and we 101 00:20:32,733 --> 00:20:41,893 break this massive network the smaller segments we learn about submitting in detail in the next review but I'm just giving you a heads up the 102 00:20:41,893 --> 00:20:52,996 reason we need submitting now we go to class a again with the same rule we look at the first octet we see this 100 and we know 100 is a 103 00:20:52,996 --> 00:21:07,446 part of class A so class A will have a submit mask of 255 if you remember class B had 255.255 and class C had 255.255.255 so 104 00:21:07,446 --> 00:21:18,997 class A has only one 255 the first octet is to 255 and if you converted to binary it looks something like this so as we know from what we know so 105 00:21:18,997 --> 00:21:31,317 far this will be the separation between network and host so anything with 100 is part of this network and this is also represented as/8 106 00:21:31,317 --> 00:21:42,958 network's because it has eight bits as ones in the subnet mask again if you look at the network ID which is nothing bud making all the net 107 00:21:42,958 --> 00:21:54,867 work bits in the IP address has zeros when this case it's 18.104.22.168 as the first IP address of this network and the broadcast ID is nothing but 108 00:21:54,867 --> 00:22:11,108 making all the host bits as ones so it is 22.214.171.124 is the broadcast ID valid IP's are between 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 109 00:22:11,108 --> 00:22:27,202 so if you know the IP address will go from 184.108.40.206 to 0.2,0.3,0.4 and it goes up to 0.255 and then it'll carry over so they become 220.127.116.11 110 00:22:27,202 --> 00:22:38,556 the it will become 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4 and it goes up to 1.255 again one will be carried over so it will get 2.0,2.1,2.2,2.3 it goes 111 00:22:38,556 --> 00:22:46,256 on,on on and on until it gets 255.255.254 to know how many valid IP addresses are ther in this range 112 00:22:46,256 --> 00:22:52,717 we use the same formula the number of zeros so 2 to the power of number of zero which is about 113 00:22:52,717 --> 00:23:06,787 nothing but 200 ah which is nothing but 2to the power of 24-2 to deduct this first and the last IP and we get a number 2,097,150 which is nothing 114 00:23:06,787 --> 00:23:20,868 but a massive massive massive massive network of well even if you compare it with our hotel analogy it is absolutely in possible to control hotel of the 115 00:23:20,868 --> 00:23:33,828 size so similarly in if to controlled network of this size having 2,097,150 devices of host it is very very inefficient and 116 00:23:33,828 --> 00:23:45,97 that is exactly why we will you submnet like you would see in the next video you so again gateway will be anything with 100 and only if it is 117 00:23:45,97 --> 00:23:55,717 part of the same network it can communicate to the gateway and like we already discussed gateway is use to go to a different 118 00:23:55,717 --> 00:24:04,79 network so if this ip adress 100.something needs to go to another address called 99.something it has to first communicate 119 00:24:04,79 --> 00:24:15,630 the gateway and the gateway using the routers and other devices in between will route the packet to 99.something address we will learn about 120 00:24:15,630 --> 00:24:27,610 routers in in the latest part of the series but remember if you have to communicate with a different IP address you have to go through the gateway like an 121 00:24:27,610 --> 00:24:39,801 example of the hotel that when I had to go out of my hotel to visit my friend who is in a different hotel I had to exit through my maingate in my mind my 122 00:24:39,801 --> 00:24:51,161 maingate as part of my hotel and that is why gateway also needs to be part of the same network that makes sense and thats a lot of information I'm sure 123 00:24:51,161 --> 00:25:03,501 I have tried to put it very very very simple but you can always write to me or you can comment on the on the section below if you have any doubts and 124 00:25:03,501 --> 00:25:14,912 we can always discuss and I'm expecting a lot of questions for this video because let's be honest IP address is easy but it's not not straightforward 125 00:25:14,912 --> 00:25:25,142 and it is confusing but once you get the concepts right it's very very easy you can do almost everything in you mind right now it's a time to test your 126 00:25:25,142 --> 00:25:39,613 knowledge look at this IP address and look at that gateway. I want all of you all to take five seconds 10 seconds you can pause this video and tell me if it is valid look at 127 00:25:39,613 --> 00:25:51,247 the gateway may be the gateway is wrong or may be the IP address itself is wrong have a look and tell if it is valid so how do we do that I'm hoping that you already paused 128 00:25:51,247 --> 00:26:05,908 and you have an answer in your mind but let me exlain how to do it first we look at the first octet so we see 133.133 is class D if it is class B 129 00:26:05,908 --> 00:26:19,768 this is the division's is this the division this part has to be seen with the gateway is it same with the gateway no the gateway is in a different network so 130 00:26:19,768 --> 00:26:34,439 it is wrong so if you see this is the first ID this is the last ID on network ID and broadcast id and the valid IP addresses are between these ranges but a network 131 00:26:34,439 --> 00:26:52,884 but our gateway is wrong and it is not valid brilliant now let's look at another example 192.168.100.315 192.168.100.1 pause this video and let me know 132 00:26:52,884 --> 00:27:08,344 if it is valid 192 is a clause C IP address very good if it is class C IP address the division is here – so is it same if you check 192.168.100 6800 is same so 133 00:27:08,344 --> 00:27:25,465 that's all right but is this a valid host what did I say IP addresses can take from 0 to 255 but this 315 is not a valid IP address and iam sure Most of 134 00:27:25,465 --> 00:27:38,664 Them already catch That Write i Thing That's about All the Information I Want to Share in This video go to this cloud map and see if you understud all the concepts 135 00:27:38,664 --> 00:27:45,757 mentioned here Please Feel free to watch this video as many time as you Wants and like I Mentioned in This 136 00:27:45,757 --> 00:27:55,207 Video Helped You or Any of These video Helped You Please Do Not forget to Share with Your Social Media contacts Social Media Platforms Please like our video Subscribe to Our 137 00:27:55,207 --> 00:28:09,473 youtube channel and the more activities you do on our video channel it will promote our video and lot of people get benefit 138 00:28:09,473 --> 00:28:19,444 If You Have Any Doubts like i mentioned do not hesitate to write in to me i will prefer if you comment on this Comment Section below Because 139 00:28:19,444 --> 00:28:30,314 It's Going to help lot of people who come and have the same doubts instead of me have to reply same query i could answer that query ones in the comment 140 00:28:30,314 --> 00:28:41,655 section and all the people can just read it.so Have a Nice Day happy newyear Once Again to all of you all and thank you so much for watching.
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